By Bun Jock Bukjiok, MD
January 24, 2011 (SSNA) — It was after mutinies at Bor Garrison, Ayod, Pochalla, Wangkai, and Pibor in May 1983 which was planned, organized and executed by then Major Kerbino kuanyin Bol and Major William Nyuon Bany Machar that led to inception of SPLA/M under the leadership of Dr. John Garang deMbor at Bilpam in 1983.
It was after the formation of the SPLA/M at Bilpam that the internal conflicts start to ensue leading to the breakaway of Abdalla Chuol Deng and Samuel Gach Tut who were basically favor of Kuot Atem for leadership. The fundamental differences were stated under the pretext of new Sudan and South Sudan independent. In fact the differences were the cover up for the power struggle as stated by some political analysts. Samuel Gach Tut was subsequently killed by the SPLA forces at Thiajak in1984. No matter whether their move was right or not, Samuel Gach was highly admired and a lot was expected from him by majority of Nuers including CDR. William Nyuon who did not hide his outrage immediately after Samuel Gach death while accompanied by CDR. Kerbino to the incident site.
CDR. William Nyuon who was the former Chief of Staffs and C-in-C of SPLA made it clear to those who were against the SPLA principles to take their arm and fight until they reached the border of Bahar El Gazal and North Sudan, and to the other group to proceed thereafter including Himself. He also made it clear that the definition of SPLA is to gain international support both militarily and politically, and that there is no one tribe name called SPLA. He further went on by stating that SPLA should fight until its goal is achieved and not to fall short like Anyanya I and II- YouTube’s source.
CDR. William Nyuon was known for his bravery, zeal, courage and great enthusiasm for unity. One of the evidences was the decision made by him and Anyanya II leaders, Gordon Koang Chuol and Stephen Duol Chuol to merge both parties under SPLA leadership of Dr. John Garang, the merger had not only allowed free movement of SPLA forces but result in historic victories against enemy. It would not be exaggeration to mention the contribution of the present Chief of Staffs of SPLA James Hoth Mai who was regarded during the merger by CDR. William himself as boy capable of uniting people. The role played by CDR. William Nyuon to prevent conflicts and conflicts escalation between SPLA/civilian and civilian/civilian was of great paramount. One of the advantages of education is to enhance the capacity of interpreting, reasoning and judgment but due to high illiteracy in our population most people are forced to trust and believe in all propaganda and criticism toward those of less educational background who were in fact dedicated their lives, energy and time to set our people free from the hand of enemy. This allowed opportunist to take advantage of situations.CDR. William Nyuon has laid superior and strong military foundation. This is witnessed not only by His achievements on the field ground as the Commander but also in social activities such as rhythm produced by one of the South Sudanese talented musician Nyajuok Keat.
The emotions, courage, pride and bravery resided in everyone who has ever listened to Nyajuok’s song are quite inspirational. The song title is about Nyuon’s Machar Army, The Army of SPLA. It is true that most people have been investing their confident on South Sudan Army (SPLA) to whether CPA protocol is respected by signatories or not. If one would not only see the outcome of struggle but also the way the outcome is being achieved, one would surely to reckon CDR. William Nyuon as number one, of course CDR. Kerbino and CDR. Arok Thon had played crucial role but their contributions were limited by some reasons.
Fellow Southerners and Sudanese in general, when is the birth of Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)? Below is Abuja Peace Conference witnessed by most of the top officials in the present GOSS. If you start reading Abuja Peace Conference bellow, try to get all of it until the end.
Abuja II- CDR. William Nyuon Bany
Not only was it the first peace conference between the GOS and the SPLM/A to be mediated by an African Government but it was also the first of its kind since the Nasir move and the development of a new strategy on peace. It was started in May 1992 in Germany-Frankfurt in attempt to find way to uniting the two factions or at least to send a unified delegation to Abuja. Nasir and Torit factions were led by Mr. Luk Jock and Mr. Bona malual respectively in Germany. Delegations who went to Abuja SPLM/A- Torit faction was represented by CDR. William Nyuon Bany and SPLM/A-Nasir by Dr Lam Akol Ajawin. It was on 10th May 1992 that CDR. William Nyuon Bany was met by Independent National Electoral Commission(INEC) Chairman under Nigerian President Ibrahim Babangida in Abuja about the need for unifying the two delegations of the SPLM/A. This was private meeting at William’s hotel room. CDR. William Nyuon was in fact hesitant to make quick decision since his was not sure about the reaction of His delegations but managed to go ahead to meet CDR. Elijah Malok who was well disposed to accept discussing uniting the two delegations.
This was the support CDR. William Nyuon desperately needed to take a decision- said by INEC Chairman. It was the 1st time on Sunday 11/1992 that the 1st draft agreement was prepared and on the subsequent day the final version was read for signature. The joint declaration was signed by CDR.William Nyuon and Dr. Lam Akol. This was the 1st time the joint declaration of common position on self-determination signed and it was the 1st time the words such as people of the South Sudan and other marginalized area were adopted into the lives of the Southerners. It is worth mentioning the very firm stand taken by CDR. William Nyuon in particular on Nuba Mountains and Southern blue Nile in the process of Self-determination.
The two delegations of the SPLM/A in the Abuja peace conference have resolved the following:
(1)- To jointly champion the right of the people of the Southern Sudan to Self-determination.
(2)- That the wishes of the people of Abiyei, Nuba mountains, and Southern Blue Nile be taken into consideration during the process of Self-determination together with the South.
(3)-The two factions of the SPLM/A will adopt a common position on the issue of interim arrangement which will be necessary in the period prior to the referendum.
It was second week of July 1992 that Dr. John Garang declared that there is nothing to do with Self-determination. The message by Dr. John Garang elaborated the position of the Movement has been ever since 1983 that of a united secular, democratic, multi-racial, multi-religious and multi-lingual Sudan. After CDR. William Nyuon received messages with simmering rage, He felt robbed of the victory he thought he had achieved in uniting the two delegations of the movement in Abuja and was poised to crowning it with the unity of those two factions. This was the beginning of the rifle between Dr. Garang and His Deputy CDR. William Nyuon Bany which later developed into armed confrontations. Document source. So basically, it was Abuja II peace agreement adopted as Comprehensive Peace agreement (CPA) which was signed in 2005 by former SPLM/SPLA Chairman Dr. John Garang under supervision of United States Government.
Who is really the CPA father? What would you say about the collapse of the Abuja II Peace agreement in May 1993? What if Abuja Peace agreement was materialized, how many lives would have been saved? Where is CDR.William Nyuon Bany Machar today? What would you say about the education, Power struggle (self-interest) and eternal freedom? Who was the systemic power during SPLA struggle? Every question will answer itself on the final Day.
The last but not the least let everyone thank the President of the South Sudan, Chairman of the SPLM, C-in-C of the SPLA Mr. Salva Kiir Mayardit and the His Deputy the Vice President of South Sudan Dr. Riek Machar Teny for their tireless work on implementation of CPA in order for the Southerners to decide for their own final destination. Let us not forget to thank the only ONE GOD (Deng-Tath) that He created every human the same and equal.
Dr. Bun Jock Bukjiok, MD, Comenius University faculty of Medicine in Bratislava, Slovakia, 2007. He is currently residing in the United States, and he can be reached at [email protected]